The attack had several major aims. First, it intended to destroy important American fleet units, thereby preventing the Pacific Fleet from interfering with Japanese conquest of the Dutch East Indies and Malaya. Second, it was hoped to buy time for Japan to consolidate its position and increase its naval strength before shipbuilding authorized by the 1940 Vinson-Walsh Act erased any chance of victory. Finally, it was meant to deliver a severe blow to American morale, one which would discourage Americans from committing to a war extending into the western Pacific Ocean and Dutch East Indies. To maximize the effect on morale, battleships were chosen as the main targets, since they were the prestige ships of any navy at the time. The overall intention was to enable Japan to conquer Southeast Asia without interference.
Striking the Pacific Fleet at anchor in Pearl Harbor carried two distinct disadvantages: the targeted ships would be in very shallow water, so it would be relatively easy to salvage and possibly repair them; and most of the crews would survive the attack, since many would be on shore leave or would be rescued from the harbor. A further important disadvantage—this of timing, and known to the Japanese—was the absence from Pearl Harbor of all three of the U.S. Pacific Fleet’s aircraft carriers (Enterprise, Lexington, and Saratoga). Ironically, the IJN top command was so imbued with Admiral Mahan‘s “decisive battle” doctrine—especially that of destroying the maximum number of battleships—that, despite these concerns, Yamamoto decided to press ahead.
Japanese confidence in their ability to achieve a short, victorious war also meant other targets in the harbor, especially the navy yard, oil tank farms, and submarine base, could safely be ignored, since—by their thinking—the war would be over before the influence of these facilities would be felt.
The Japanese planners had determined that some means of rescuing fliers whose aircraft were too badly damaged to return to the carriers was required. The island of Niihau, only 30 minutes flying time from Pearl Harbor, was designated as the rescue point.
The Zero flown by Petty Officer Shigenori Nishikaichi of Hiryu was damaged in the attack on Wheeler, and he flew to the rescue point on Niihau. The aircraft was further damaged on landing. Nishikaichi was helped from the wreckage by one of the native Hawaiian inhabitants, who, aware of the tension between the United States and Japan, took the pilot’s maps and other documents. The island’s residents had no telephones or radio and were completely unaware of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nishikaichi enlisted the support of two Japanese-American residents in an attempt to recover the documents. During the ensuing struggles, Nishikaichi was killed, one collaborator committed suicide, and his wife was sent to prison.
The ease with which the local ethnic Japanese residents apparently went to the assistance of Nishikaichi was a source of concern for many, and tended to support those who believed that local Japanese could not be trusted.
Ang Pilipinisasyon. dahil dito ay napabilis pang lalo ang Civil Retirement Act No. 2581 noong pebrero 1916. Ayon dito ay ang sino mang kawani ng pamahalaan na nakaglingkod nang mula anim na taon pataas ay maaari nang magretiro . Bilang kondisyon nito, kailangan magbitiw sila sa tungkulin bago sumapit ang unang araw ng hulyo
The philippine Autonomy Act It has two Bases The Higher and the Lower. This is AN ACT TO DECLARE THE PURPOSE OF THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES AS TO THE FUTURE POLITICAL STATUS OF THE PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, AND TO PROVIDE A MORE AUTONOMOUS GOVERNMENT FOR THOSE ISLANDS.
Si Manuel Luis Quezon ay ang ikalawang Pangulo ng Republika ng Pilipinas . At Unang Pangulo ng Commonwealth ng Pilipinas., kasunod ni Emilio Aguinaldo bilang unang pangulo sa Republika ng Pilipinas) .
Ipinanganak si Manuel L. Quezon sa Baler, sa lalawigan ng Tayabas (tinatawag na ngayong Aurora) noong Agosto 19, 1878. Ang tunay niyang pangalan ay Manuel Luis M. Quezon. Anak siya nina Lucio Quezon at Maria Dolores Molina, kapwa mga guro. Nagtapos siya ng pag-aaral mula sa Colegio de San Juan de Letran noong 1893.Bilang isang binata, nakilahok siya sa pag-aalsa laban sa mga Kastila. Nakipaglaban din siyang kasama ng mga Pilipinong Nasyonalista sa panahon ng Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano, bilang katulong ni Emilio Aguinaldo. Naipakulong siya dahil sa gawaing ito. Makaraang palayain, nanumpa siya ng katapatan sa Estados Unidos. at siya ay isang Katoliko. Naging asawa niya si Aurora Aragon.
Ang Tunay na pangalan ni Sergio Osmeña ay Sergio Osmeña y Suico siya ay isang Pilipinong-Chinese na Roman Catholic. kung saan siya ang ikalawang pangulo ng ika-4 na pangulo ng Pilipinas na si Manuel L,Queazon. siya rin ang pinakamatandang naging ikalawang pangulo ng pilipinas dahil sa gulang na “65″.
Naging Gobernador Si Osmeña sa Cebu mula 1901 hanggang 1907. Naging Asawa niya ay si Estefania Veloso. at ang anak nila ay Si Sergio Osmeña Jr. Professional siya sa pagiging Lawyer. at Ipinanganak si Sergio Osmna noong September 9 1878. Sa Cebu City. at ang ina niya ay si Juana Osmeña y Suico, ipinanganak siya ng ina nya nang 14 taong gulang palang ang ina niya hindi rin pinakasalan ng ama niya ang kanyang ina . nag-aral ng Elementary si Osmena sa Colegio de San Carlos hanggang siya ay maka graduate doon ng Elementarya at ipinag patuloy niya ang pag-aaral niya sa San Juan de Letran College . Kasama din Si Osmena a Misyong OsRox
Manuel Acuña Roxas ang buong pangalan ni Manuel Roxas. Ipinanganak siya noong January 1, 1892, Roxas City. Naging Asawa niya si Trinidad Roxas. Nag aral siya sa University of Manila, University of the Philippines College of Law, at sa University of the Philippines . Ang anak niya ay si Gerardo Roxas . Ruby Roxas . Siya rin ay isang Roman Catholic .Naging Parte din siya ng Pilipinasasyon. pati sa Misyong OsRox
Sila ang mga bayani sa Panahon ng mga amerikano
Ang Malasariling Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas (Ingles: Philippine Commonwealth; Kastila: Mancomunidad Filipina) ay ang tawag pampulitika saPilipinas noong 1935 hanggang 1946 kung kailan komonwelt ng Estados Unidos ang bansa. Bago ng 1935, isang pook-insular na di-komonwelt ang Pilipinas, at bago pa doon, teritoryo lamang ito ng Estados Unidos.
Ibinase sa Batas Tydings-McDuffie ang pagbuo sa Komonwelt. Ayon sa batas, magiging panahong pantrasisyunal ang Komonwelt bilang paghahanda sa ganap na kalayaan at soberanya na ipinangako sa Philippine Autonomy Act oBatas Jones.
Si Manuel L. Quezon ang unang pangulo ng komonwelt. Si Sergio Osmeña ang ikalawang pangulo ng komonwelt. Si Manuel Roxas ang naging huling pangulo nito. Tuluyan nang ibinuwag ang Komonwelt noong 1946 at naging Republikaang Pilipinas.
- ↑ Timeline 1930 – 1939, St. Scholastica’s College;
^ Gin Ooi 2004, p. 387;
^ Zaide 1994, p. 319;
^ Franklin D. Roosevelt (Nobyembre 14, 1935), Proclamation 2148 on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, The American Presidency Project, University of California at Santa Barbara (specifying, “This Proclamation shall be effective upon its promulgation at Manila, Philippine Islands, on November 15, 1935, by the Secretary of War of the United States of America, who is hereby designated as my representative for that purpose.”)
- Roces; Juan Luis Z. Luna (Jr.); Reynaldo Arcilla (1986), RR philippine almanac: book of facts 1986 edition, Ramon Roces y Pardo
- Philippine Historical Association (2000), Philippine Legislature, 100 Years, Philippine Historical Association in cooperation with New Day Publishers, ISBN 9719224509
- Agoncillo, Teodoro (2001), The Fateful Years: Japan’s Adventure in the Philippines 1941-1945, 1, Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Press, ISBN 9789715422741
- Agoncillo, Teodoro A.; Milagros Guerrero (1970), History of the Filipino People, Malaya Books, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Gin Ooi, Keat (2004), Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 9781576077702
- Seekins, Donald M. (1991), “The Commonwealth”, in Dolan, Ronald E.,Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Seekins, Donald M. (1991), “World War II”, in Dolan, Ronald E.,Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Dolan, Ronald E., ed. (1991), “Economic Relations with the United States”, Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Hayden, Joseph Ralston (1942), The Philippines, a Study in National Development, Macmillan, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz (1990), Philippine History and Government, Phoenix publishing House, ISBN 9710618946, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Weir, Fraser, “American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth 1901 – 1941″, A Centennial History of Philippine Independence, 1898-1998, nakuha noong 2007-12-28
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4
[baguhin]Mga kawing panlabas
- The Present Government of the Philippines Book written by Maximo Kalaw detailing the functions of the different branches of the Philippine Commonwealth
- Parallel and Divergent Aspects of British Rule in the Raj, French Rule in Indochina, Dutch Rule in the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), and American Rule in the Philippines
- Philippines: Polity Style: 1897-2009
- sophia antonio
The attack on Pearl Harbor (called Hawaii Operation or Operation AI by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters (Operation Z in planning) and the Battle of Pearl Harbor) was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United Statesnaval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions theEmpire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.
The base was attacked by 353 Japanese fighters, bombers and torpedo planes in two waves, launched from six aircraft carriers. All eight U.S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four being sunk. Of these eight damaged, two were raised, and with four repaired, six battleships returned to service later in the war. The Japanese also sank or damaged threecruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship,[nb 4] and oneminelayer. 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed; 2,402 Americans were killed and 1,282 wounded. Important base installations such as the power station, shipyard, maintenance, and fuel and torpedo storage facilities, as well as the submarine piers and headquarters building (also home of the intelligence section) were not attacked. Japanese losses were light: 29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, and 65 servicemen killed or wounded. One Japanese sailor was captured.
The attack came as a profound shock to the American people and led directly to the American entry into World War II in both the Pacific andEuropean theaters. The following day (December 8), the United Statesdeclared war on Japan. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been strong, disappeared. Clandestine support of Britain (for example the Neutrality Patrol) was replaced by active alliance. Subsequent operations by the U.S. prompted Germany and Italy to declare war on the U.S. on December 11, which was reciprocated by the U.S. the same day.
There were numerous historical precedents for unannounced military action by Japan. However, the lack of any formal warning, particularly while negotiations were still apparently ongoing, led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to proclaim December 7, 1941, “a date which will live in infamy“.